Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań Introduction For some time, the turn of the third millennium BC in Northern Mesopotamia has been considered a period of settlement collapse that witnessed the abandonment of the whole area Weiss et al. Recent research in the Khabur Triangle, a region located in the central part of the Jazirah, has demonstrated that during the so-called Post-Akkadian kit eutanasia suisse anti aging Early Jazirah V period the central part of the area at least had been settled and probably politically divided between Urkesˇ and Nagar, both serving as seats of local dynasties of Hurrian origin.
A dark period starts with the abandonment of the Post-Akkadian levels at most of the sites in the area. As for the subsequent period, lasting approximately to years little or nothing is known about the archaeology of the area.
Only with the advent of the Middle Bronze Age II period, in which the well-known Khabur Ware pottery appears in its technically and stylistically most developed form, do settlements in the Khabur Triangle seem to be reestablished. Yet, this process can hardly be dated with precision.
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In consequence, while excavations and surveys identified a considerable number of sites located in the central and the eastern part of North Mesopotamia yielding what I call Classic i.
This view stands in opposition to information provided by the so-called Old Assyrian texts. It is hard to believe, that they had chosen to travel through a country that was entirely abandoned.
While a reconstruction of the network of their caravan routes is still a matter of dispute, there is no doubt that a number of settlements existed on the way, serving as stopping stations after a day of travel Nashef ; Joannès ; Forlanini The aim of this paper is to identify pottery predating Classic Khabur Ware, pottery that could be subsequently used for the identification of settlements contemporary to the first period of the Old Assyrian trade to Anatolia prior to BC in the Khabur Triangle area.
The Old Assyrian Trade Sources The primary source for the knowledge of the Old Assyrian period are substantial archives found during initially illicit and later scientific excavations at Kültepe ancient Kanesˇa large site located in the Kızıl Irmak valley in central Turkey.
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The number of tablets found at the site was estimated at ca. Of these tablets ca.
Surprisingly, only an extremely small number of Old Assyrian texts are known from Assur, the city that formed the base for the trade. Twenty-three tablets that were identified are mainly stray texts found in Middle Assyrian archives Donbaz ; Pedersén2.
This kit eutanasia suisse anti aging results from lorand delczeg anti aging fact that the early second millennium city was not excavated to any significant extent by either early or late 20th century explorers.
Old Assyrian texts from the Jazirah are even less numerous: there are three tablets from Tell Rimah, one tablet from Tell Leilan, one tablet from Tell Hammam et-Turkman, and, if Jesper Eidem is right, an envelope fragment from Tell Arbid may also be added to this list Eidem b, A small fragment of a tablet from Lidar Höyük published recently Müller belongs to the Syrian scribal tradition and seems to be later than the Old Assyrian trade. It has to be noted that Northern Mesopotamia also yielded a considerable number of Old Babylonian texts produced by the administrations of various local kingdoms.
Many of them use date formulas involving the name of the holder of the lı¯mum office in Assur, which can now be converted into calendar years cf. Chronology The Old Kit eutanasia suisse anti aging texts from the lower city ka¯rum area of Kültepe have been found in two levels of occupation separated by a conflagration layer.
Most of the tablets came from level II. The level Ib houses were much poorer in epigraphic material but cuneiform tablets of the same date were also found in contemporary layers of the main mound where earlier texts were not attested. All the tablets discovered at other Anatolian sites vakcina Sri Lanka suisse anti aging to level Ib as well.
Bazar: Chagar Bazar, M. It is more difficult to qualify the tablets found in Mesopotamia in terms of ka¯rum Kanesˇ settlement periods. There is no doubt that the texts form Hammam et-Turkman, Leilan, and Rimah, as well as most tablets from Mari and Tuttul, are contemporary with the Kanesˇ Ib level.
This is also the case for the Sippar tablets, most of which concern the merchant Warad-Sîn, active between the forty-second year of Hammurapi — BC and the eighth year of Samsu-iluna — BC. The tablets from Esˇ- nunna, Nuzi, and Nippur show a number of features of the Old Assyrian dialect, but cannot be dated safely to any of its sub-periods Jesper Eidem, pers. The dating of ka¯rum Kanesˇ II and ka¯rum Kanesˇ Ib levels was until recently a subject of scholarly discussion, including the question of the length of the abandonment period separating both levels, usually estimated to be about 30 years Balkan Veenhof a, 29 and continue down to ca.
As KEL G, the list providing the latest lı¯mum names, was discovered in Kültepe, there is no doubt that Assyrian trade with Anatolia did not stop before this date.
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The length of the ka¯rum Kanesˇ Ib period is presently calculated to be ca. The oldest lı¯mum names that appear on the tablets belong to the time of Iku¯num — BC Veenhof a, 32, n. There is also limited evidence suggesting that Iku¯num was personally involved in the trade Veenhof Some scholars argue that the edict was in fact a regulation, which created favorable conditions for the Old Assyrian trade and traders Larsen63— Commercial Roads of the Old Assyrian Period There have been a considerable number of attempts to reconstruct the distribution of Old Assyrian commercial roads Goetze ; Hallo ; Nashef ; Beitzel ; Oguchi This discussion has not been limited to the identification or ordering of cities names mentioned on the tablets themselves, but has also focused on reconstructing the main caravan trek, in particular on whether kit eutanasia suisse anti aging followed the Tigris River or crossed the Northern Ráncok megelőzése plain towards the Euphrates and if the latter, whether this route was to the south or north of the Sinjar Range.
The starting point of the trek was, of course, Assur, and the last Mesopotamian station was Hahhum, where a crossing of the Euphrates was located. Klaus R. Veenhof has recently proposed locating this city in the area of Samsat or at the site of Samsat itself on the Turkish Euphrates Veenhof b.
Twenty-eight such lists were collected and compared by Khaled Nashef Nashef Some of them refer to stations located either between Hahhum and Kanesˇ, or within Anatolia, as well as on detours from the main road. It should be noted that the position of some names on this list is disputable, and that in an open country as is the Jazirah there were various ways of traveling across the region.
Moreover, some detours were caused by political or natural events, and we cannot exclude a certain role of personal preferences.
The second section of the road covered the distance from Apum to Hahhum and is the most interesting part for my study. Another problem is caused by the fact that most of the names mentioned on the list have never been convincingly attributed to any of the archaeological sites located in the area.
At first glance it is surprising that large cities such as Urkesˇ and Nagar, which were the seats of prosperous local dynasties of Hurrian origin during the Post-Akkadian period ca. Sehna is also absent, although this is hardly a surprise, as the site seems to have been abandoned from the Late Akkadian period onwards, and most probably resettled shortly before Samsi-Addu decided to transfer the capital of his kingdom there Frayne His reservations were based on the lack of Early Jazirah V and Old Jazirah I material from the site although a recent publication provides evidence that the site was settled during this period Nicolle— This is corroborated furthermore by a surface find of an Old Assyrian style cylinder seal in the lower city area Castel Helpful information as to where some of the stations on the trek were located is provided by the Mari archives.
The evidence has been presented by Francis Joannès and David Sevaliè According to the first study, most of the settlements listed in the Old Assyrian texts were small cities during the period of the Mari archives the only exceptions being Kaluzanum and Adubazum, located between Qattara and Apum.
This identification is corroborated by information provided by two letters concerning Assyrian merchants written by Itur-Asdu, a governor residing in Nahur from the sixth till the thirteenth year of Zimri-Lîm — BC Guichard They clearly indicate that the road passed through the territory of the city of Nahur, where a miksum-tax was levied on the merchandise.
According to an Old Babylonian itinerary Hallo Nahur was also located on a main caravan road during kit eutanasia suisse anti aging Old Babylonian period, on a stretch starting at Apum and going through Amaz and Nahur to Luha, a city that is often mentioned in the correspondence from Nahur.
As Itur-Asdu also seems to have supervised the city of Urkesˇ when it was dependant on Zimrı¯-Lîm, Nahur should be located in the vicinity of Urkesˇ, probably to the west of it.
Other texts mentioned by Michaël Guichard suggest a location in the vicinity of Asnakkum, a city that is certainly to be identified with Tell Chagar Bazar, which would point to the area of Amuda or Derbasiye as the location of Nahur. In my opinion, the most likely candidate for the location of Nahur is the impressive site of Tell Ailun.
It is, of course, tempting to connect names mentioned by texts with places that were prominent sites in the early second millennium BC as I have just done in the case of Nahur. The main kit eutanasia suisse anti aging, however, is caused by problems with the identification of early second millennium BC that is pre- Samsi-Addu sites, that were contemporary with the first phase of the Old Assyrian trade.
As mentioned above, all of the Khabur Ware contexts that can be precisely dated by tablets belong to the period of Samsi-Addu or later, i. Consequently, the presence of Classic Khabur Ware could be considered as a marker for karum Kanes Ib period settlements, while there is no instance of securely dated deposits of pottery of this kind which can be attributed to the karum Kanes II period.
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Still, texts of this period clearly hint at the presence of pre-Samsi-Addu settlements in the area, providing Assyrian traders with stopping places on the road to or from Anatolia. In this situation two working hypotheses could be postulated.
The first is, to assume that Classic Khabur Ware, dated by textual evidence to the 18th century BC, started much earlier, at the turn of the Post-Akkadian period, but these early contexts cannot be precisely dated due to the lack of textual sources. The other is, to assume that other kinds of pottery occurred on sites or in the levels belonging to the Old Jazirah I period.
In order to falsify one or both of these hypotheses there are two clear lines of inquiry that we might follow.
The first is to address the problem of the periodization of the Khabur Ware pottery, with particular emphasis on its early phases. The other is to look at the material from sites in the Jazirah, focusing on the levels which predate the period of Samsı¯-Addu or more generally, the 18th century BC.
Early Khabur Ware in Earlier Research Divisions of Khabur Ware Pottery Sir Max Mallowan, who dubbed the painted pottery from the first half of the second millennium BC found at Tell Chagar Bazar Khabur Ware, reflected in this name not only the geographical position of the site but also the relative abundance of pottery of this kind at sites surveyed in the Khabur area prior to excavations Mallowan— On the basis of the relative stratigraphy of the Tell Chagar Bazar graves, he proposed dividing stratum 1 into four sub-units: early, early intermediate, intermediate, and late.
But this division does not shed any light on the problem of Early Khabur Ware, since tablets dated to the period of Samsi-Addu were found together with sherds of the classic variant of the Khabur Ware in a context dated to early level 1 Mallowan82— Later attempts to phase the Khabur Ware follow the basic division into Older and Younger Khabur Ware proposed by Barthel Hrouda38—40and will not be discussed here, as this division is of no relevance for my study cf.
Oguchitab. The periodization of Khabur Ware pottery was one of the main research tasks carried out by Hiromichi Oguchi in his unpublished Ph. His conclusions were presented in a series of papers published in Al-Rafidain Oguchi ; ; ; ; He proposed dividing the Khabur Ware period into four sub-periods Oguchi— : — Period 1 ca. Oguchi— ; — Period 3, Late Khabur Ware period ca. Oguchi addressed the problem of the transition from Post-Akkadian pottery to Khabur Ware more specifically in a paper of He remarked that the problem of the gap between the late third millennium pottery tradition and Khabur Ware might be solved in several different ways: — by accepting the existence of a hiatus in settlement and culture— since the gap may result from applying evidence from a single site to the entire Northern Mesopotamia, juvena anti aging krém problem could be resolved by introducing evidence from other sites in the area, — by bringing forward the date of the beginning of the Khabur Ware period and pushing back the end of the Post-Akkadian period.
The second solution was favored by Oguchi, who discussed the evidence provided by trench G-4 at Tell Jigan.
Levels 3a and 3b yielded assemblages composed partly of Khabur Ware Oguchifig. Oguchi suggested that, despite the fact that all of the pottery discussed came from fill or refuse deposits, this situation may reflect the contemporaneous use of late third millennium BC pottery and Khabur Ware sometime during the 20th century BC.
I will comment on this hypothesis later.
Subsequently, he turned to a study of unpublished pottery from the excavations at Tell Muhammad Diyab, where a sequence of five levels, featuring the renewal of a sacral building on summit A, was discovered. Consequently, the four earlier levels including a short abandonment in level III should be dated to the times prior to BC.
The apparent, prolonged use of level V made Nicolle think about moving the beginning of the Khabur Ware period closer to the beginning of the 20th century BC Nicolle— He has, however, abandoned this point of view in later publications.
This opinion is repeated in his publication of seasons — at Tell Muhammad Diyab Nicolle— Level C6 of this sequence corresponds to a period dating ca. As there was no evident break in occupation, Pf älzner insisted on a continuity of pottery traditions at the turn of the third millennium BC and suggested that the decoration of Khabur Ware originates from rare painted vessels of the Post-Akkadian period.
According to his own definition, Early Khabur Ware is characterized by: 1 wide but uneven bands of paint, and 2 combination of painted and grooved decoration. In two more recent papers Oguchi presented some drawings of the pottery kit eutanasia suisse anti aging Tell Jigan, which in his opinion should be belong to the 20th century BC.
In the second paper, more examples of pottery from level 3 a—b from Tell Jigan are shown, though they represent types from the late third millennium BC exclusively Oguchifig. In conclusion, Oguchi puts forward the thesis that during the 20th century BC, late third millennium BC pottery and Khabur Ware pottery were used contemporaneously, at least at some North Mesopotamian sites.
All of them belong to the category of pots, representing vessels with a wide mouth, comparable in diameter to the height of the vessel, with no distinctive neck under the rim and a very short or non-existent shoulders. They all shi anti aging painted decoration which is characterized by a carelessness of execution as the bands are of uneven width and do not have straight edges, painted points resemble drops rather than regular circles, and occasionally droplets of paint appear on the walls.
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Three examples feature horizontal grooving on the shoulders Oguchifig. According to Oguchi, a combination of grooving and painted bands is a feature of Early Khabur Ware in this statement he is clearly influenced by Joan Oates.
Two of the illustrated vessels have scraping marks on the inner surface. All kit eutanasia suisse anti aging are either buff or pinkish in color and show chaff one example or a combination of chaff and mineral temper.
The vessel is made of pale green clay with medium dense chaff and medium size grit temper. The color of the paint is not given. The potsherds described above can hardly be qualified as Early Khabur Ware pottery.
The combination of grooved and painted decoration has to be dismissed as an early feature against Oates et al. On the other hand, the sherd published in clearly belongs to the late third millennium BC repertoire as do other potsherds illustrated on the same plate. The whole pottery assemblage from the square is described as containing finer Khabur shapes than kit eutanasia suisse anti aging encountered in trench B1.