Vineyard, orchard 0. We report here reconstructed ozone measurements obtained in the Habsburg Empire from the latter half of the 19 th century until the s.
Figure 2. Ozone measurements at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century Concentrations and depositions of ozone in Central Europe According to the map, earliest data obtained outside the Habsburg Empire were in Hong Kong, Michigan, in France at the Pic de Midi Observatory.
The measurements at each site were carried out using the Schönbein method, with different scales used, e.
The values on the map are presented in ppbv, which has been introduced more recently. Available values were between 5 and 15 ppbv.
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Yearbooks between — of the Central Meteorological Institute of the Habsburg Empire in Vienna Wien contain data on ozone concentration from more than 20 stations. However, ozone data were not obtained and recorded for subsequent years, except for data obtained in Vienna.
Figure 3. Ozone measurement sites in Central Europe between — Numerous meteorological stations in the Kingdom of Hungary also made ozone measurements using the Schönbein method scale of 0—10 during the day and night: Buda OfenSzeged SzegedinSelmecbánya Schemnitz and Besztercebánya Neusohl.
In this study, we will convert Schönbein numbers to ozone concentrations in ppbv using the approach outlined in Pavelin et al. There are some interesting aspects recyclage logo suisse anti aging the measurement worth mentioning: i Vienna has quite a long ozone measurement period from to the end of 19 th century; ii Ozone observation started in in Buda, however there was continuous published dataset in yearbooks only from ; iii in Krakau Krakowfour Schönbein papers were simultaneously posted towards the four points of the compass to study the differences caused the wind speed outside the building shielded vs.
The concentrations measured were similar Weidinger et al. To calculate ozone level daytime and nighttime relative humidity data are needed. For humidity data missing in the yearbook, data from the nearest meteorological station were used.
Of course it is a compromise but the selected stations were in the same climate region Hungarian Plain.
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For Szeged we used humidity data from Temerin near Belgrad in one year, while in other years data was taken from Debrecen. In two other years measurements of humidity were found locally in Szeged. Meteorological measurements were usually carried out three times a day.
There were two stations with more than three observations of humidity per day: in Seftenberg 5 times per day and in Kremsmünster 10 times per day. Available dataset of relative humidity were i daily averages one value per day and ii monthly averages for three daily observationsand hours in Central European Time. Monthly averages of relative humidity were determined by weighted averages of monthly values of three observations.
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Percentage differences between these values were used for reconstruction of daily variation of the relative humidity from each daily average. Using estimated relative humidity three times a day the daytime between — hours and nighttime — hours relative humidity could be determined assuming linear changes between values.
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Seasonal variability in daily average relative humidity is characterized by a winter maximum and a summer minimum Figure 4. In and extremely low daily average relative humidities were found in datasets from several stations suggesting these low values were not likely the result of measurement artifacts. Density of measurements was quite high compared to today.
The frequency of measurements allows us to determine daytime ráncok vers nighttime ozone concentrations. The spatial distribution of ozone concentration in — produced from numerous measurements was characterized by maximum values around Vienna and low values less than 10 ppbv in Szeged and in Krakow Figure 5.
The results for the vegetation growth season from April to October are presented in Figure 6. Assuming the concentrations were very similar in daytime and nighttime, the differences between ozone deposition rates are caused by the different deposition velocities in daytime and nighttime Table 1.
On the basis of land-use data from the 19 th century Timár et al. Concentrations and depositions of ozone recyclage logo suisse anti aging Central Europe Figure 4. Schönbein number arelative humidity b and ozone concentration c in Szeged between — The moving averages were calculated over 10 days of data pentad 29 Acta Silv.
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Figure 5. Annual average ozone concentration [ppbv] in the Habsburg Empire in Figure 6.
Résultats : 30 Le bois et la laine de verre, gages de durabilité Les constructions en bois ont connu une forte croissance au cours des dernières années. La construction bois permet de satisfaire à toutes les exigences de protection incendie avec des structures économiques. Pour permettre la poursuite des spectacles pendant ces travaux devant durer deux ans, les autorités ont fait édifier un bâtiment provisoire baptisé « UM! Conforme au standard Minergie, le bâtiment privilégiera également la durabilité sur le plan urbanistique. Les anciens moulins et silos vont ainsi reprendre vie avec une toute nouvelle affectation.
It is not autochthonous in the Hungarian Plain 3. Starting in it operated as the Observatory of the Meteorological and Geomagnetic Institute Czelnai,