Changes in the structure and organization of Hungarian society, along with the distinguishing features of Hungarian assimilation, helped to nurture a typically Hungarian, and more particularly Budapest, talent. These patterns of assimilation in pre-World War I Austria-Hungary, particularly in Hungary, and those in the United States share a number of remarkable similarities.
The social and legal interplay of Jewish-Gentile relations such as religious conversion, mixed marriages, forced and voluntary Magyarization and ennoblement became relevant at the time of World War I, as well as during the social and political crises of The social dynamics of post-World War I coalesced to condition significant intellectual and professional emigration from Hungary.
It is sadly ironic that most Hungarian Jews who felt endangered after were in fact more Hungarian than Jewish, representing mostly an assimilated, Magyarized, typically non-religious middle or upper-middle class which had profoundly contributed to the socio-economic development, indeed, the modernization of Hungary. Their exodus was a tremendous loss for the country just as it became a welcome gain for the other countries they chose to settle in. For the small groups of intellectually-gifted Hungarians, often of Jewish origin, who started their migration toward other European countries and the United States after the political changes ofthe typical choice was to one of the German-speaking countries.
Austria and Germany were most commonly chosen, but many went to Czechoslovakia which boasted of prestigious German universities. After what often proved to be the first step in a chain- or step-migration, most Hungarian émigrés found they had to leave those countries upon the rise of Hitler as Chancellor of Germany and continue on their way, in most cases, to the United States. 1 frank 1968 suisse anti aging constitutes just a partial természetes termékek anti aging akne of the brightest people to leave Hungary forever.
The War was followed by immense social convulsions that drove astonishing numbers of people into all directions. Russian and Ukrainian refugees escaped Bolshevism, Poles were relocated into reemerging Poland, Hungarians escaped from newly established Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia and tried to find some place in a new Hungary . Outward movements from Hungary in the s were part of this emerging general pattern, and 1 frank 1968 suisse anti aging be defined as emigrations proper.
Many people went on substantial and extended study tours of varied length — just as others did before World War I. Contrary to general belief, migrations were not limited to Jews suffering from the political and educational consequences of the White Terror in Hungary, as a reaction to the revolutions of Yet Jewish migrations were a definitive pattern of the s when the Numerus Clausus law of XXV excluded many of them from college.
A significant, though smaller group of non-Jews also left Hungary at the same time. Motivated by politics, poverty, or curiosity, gentiles with dramatically mixed convictions hit the road and tried their luck in Paris, Berlin, or Hollywood.
Quota Laws enabled very few Hungarians to enter the United States. Nevertheless, most migrants were directed to centers in Europe, and most of all, to Germany. German centers of culture, education, and research represented the pre-eminent opportunity for young Hungarians searching for patterns and norms of modernization. Research on the history of intellectual migrations from Europe, a broad and complex international field, was based initially on eye-witness accounts which served as primary sources rather than scholarly literature .
Research proper brought its first results in the late s and early 1 frank 1968 suisse anti aging. Europe and America, . From the beginning it was German-Jewish emigration that was best researched, a pattern that was partly reinforced by H.
By the end of the s, the first guide to the archival sources relating to German-American emigration during the Third Reich was also compiled . The s produced the much-needed biographical encyclopedia which paved the way for further fact-based, quantitative research . Soon the results of this research became available in a variety of German, English, and French publications focusing on German, German-Jewish and some of the other Central European emigration in the Nazi era .
The primary foci of the research of the s were the émigré scientists and artists fleeing Hitler, with growing interest in U. This unfortunate tradition has tended to survive in the otherwise rich and impressive historical literature on the subject.
The great and unsolved problem for further research on refugees from Hitler's Germany remained how to distinguish the non-German, including the Hungarian, elements: people, problems, and cases in this complex area.
Laura Fermi was probably the first to notice the significant difference between German refugee scientists and Hungarians forced to leave Germany. Her Illustrious Immigrants included a few pages on 1 frank 1968 suisse anti aging she termed the «Hungarian mystery», referring to the unprecedented number of especially talented Hungarians in the interwar period .
The systematic, predominantly biographical treatment of the subject was begun by Lee Congdon in his eminent Exile and Social Thought which surveyed some of the most brilliant careers of Hungarians in Austria and Germany between and . A contribution on the achievement of the great Hungarian-born scientists of this century, mostly biographical in nature, came from fellow-physicist George Marx . In a recent book, István Hargittai assessed the achievement of five of the most notable Hungarian-born scientists who contributed to the U.
A full treatment of the Hungarian share in the great intellectual migrations of the interwar decades is planned by the present author .
Hungary and the German Cultural Tradition For those trying to escape Hungary after World War I and the revolutions, the German-speaking countries appeared the most obvious destination. The German influence in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy was particularly strong in the educational system, in the musical tradition, and in the arts and sciences. Members of the Austro-Hungarian middle classes spoke German well, and countries like Austria, Germany, and newly-established Czechoslovakia were close to Hungary, not only in geographic, but also in cultural terms.
Weimar Germany and parts of German-speaking Czechoslovakia were also liberal and democratic in spirit and politics. In addition, like the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Germany and to some extent, Czechoslovakia, represented a multi-centered world: each of the «gracious capitals of Germany's lesser princes»  could boast of an opera, a symphony, a university, a theater, a museum, a library, an archive, with an appreciative and inspiring public which invited and welcomed international talent.
Young musicians graduating from the Hochschule für Musik in Berlin could be reasonably sure that their diploma concerts would be attended by the music directors and conductors of most of the German operas across the country, poised to offer them a job in one of the many cultural centers of the Reich . Berlin and other cities of Weimar Germany shared many of the cultural values and traditions which young Hungarian scholars, scientists, musicians, visual artists, film-makers and authors were accustomed to, providing an attractive setting and an intellectual environment comparable to the one that perished with pre-War Austria-Hungary, or was left behind, particularly in Budapest .
Both as a language and as a culture, German was a natural for Hungarians in the immediate post-World War I era. The lingua franca of the Habsburg Empire and of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, German was used at home, taught at school, spoken on the street and needed in the army . This was more than a century-old tradition: the links between Hungary and the Austrian and German cultures went back to the 17th and the 18th centuries.
Middle class sitting rooms in Austria, Hungary, Bohemia, Galicia and Croatia typically boasted of the complete work of Goethe and Schiller, the poetry of Heine and Lenau, the plays of Grillparzer and Schnitzler . Not only were German literature and German translations read throughout these areas: German permeated the language of the entire culture. When Baron József Eötvös, a reputable man of letters and Minister of Education, visited his daughter in a castle in Eastern Hungary, he noted: «What contrasts!
I cross Szeged and Makó, then visit my daughter to find Kaulbach on the wall, Goethe on the bookshelf and Beethoven on the piano» . Throughout the entire Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and beyond, Hungarians looked to import from Germany modern theories and modern practices.
Two examples from the beginning and the end of the period are characteristic.
Immediately after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise, young education philosopher Mór Kármán, the father of Theodore von Kármán, was commissioned in by Baron József Eötvös, then Minister of 1 frank 1968 suisse anti aging and Public Education, to study the theory and practice of teacher training in Leipzig, then Saxony in Germany, and introduce the German system into Hungary. After almost two years under Professor Liller in Leipzig, Kármán returned to Hungary and founded, inboth the Institute for Teacher Training at the University of [Buda]pest as well as the closely related Practicing High School or Modelgymnasium for prospective teachers, thus profoundly influencing Hungarian education in a German spirit and tradition .
Efforts to study and imitate what was German were natural. German was then the international language of science and literature: in the first eighteen years of the Nobel prize, between andthere were seven German Nobel Laureates in Chemistry, six in Physics, four in Medicine one Austro-Hungarianand four in Literature .
Scholars and scientists read the Beiträge, the Mitteilungen, or the Jahrbücher of their special field of research or practice, published at some respectable German university town such as Giessen, Jena, or Greifswald. The grand tour of a young intellectual, artist, or professional, would unmistakably lead the budding scholar to Göttingen, Heidelberg, and, increasingly, Berlin.
Artists typically went to Munich to study with Piloty . The illustrious faculty of the newly-founded Music Academy of Budapest, in most cases invited to Hungary by Franz Liszt himself, typically taught young Hungarians such as Béla Bartók or Zoltán Kodály through German . When German composer Johannes Brahms performed his works in Pest later Budapesthe recognized that the best music critics wrote in the German papers, that the head of the leading chamber group was German-Hungarian Jeno Hubay formerly Huberthe cellist of the quartet was the Prague-born David Popper, that the second violinist was the Viennese Victor Ritter von Herzfeld, and that the viola player was an Austrian of peasant origin, József Waldbauer.
It was not only in the opera and philharmonic orchestra that the German language reigned supreme: German was the language in which Professor Hans Koessler taught composition and Xavér Ferenc Szabó taught orchestration at the country's top music institution.
This is why his Hungarian pieces were composed as though they represented a particular, Eastern branch of German music: they jump about, as it were, in a pair of German trousers, the mádjárosch Hopsassa, to which Musicology Professor Antal Molnár referred in remembering the Budapest of his early years . Ironically, it was the Moravian-Jewish Gustav Mahler who, as Director of the Royal Hungarian Opera between andfirst demanded that singers use the Hungarian language instead of the generally-accepted German though Mahler himself, as well as several other celebrated conductors in Budapest such as Hans Richter and Arthur Nikisch, only spoke German.
The Hungarian middle classes often read local papers published in German that were available throughout the Monarchy until its dissolution and even 1 frank 1968 suisse anti aging. Founded inthe authoritative Pester Lloyd of Budapest, for example, continued as one of the most appreciated and well-read papers of the Budapest middle class until almost the end of World War II German in language but committed to Hungarian culture this part of the press helped bridge the gap between the two cultures.
In much of the 18th and 19th centuries, German novels and poetry, written and published in Hungary, were as integral to Greater-German [Gesamtdeutsch] literature as anything written in Königsberg or Prague . For socially aspiring Jewish families, German was the language of education and upward mobility. With all this infusion of German blood into Hungarian musical life and education, Budapest in the early s still did not seem comparable to Berlin.
Budapest, we must admit, does not play even a small role in the world of music. Even if it is true that the Hochschule of Berlin is simply the center of a clique, that clique is enormous and has played a role for decades whereas the musical world doesn't even notice whether or not I take a dominating position in Budapest» .
Dohnányi stayed in Berlin until World War I and, as Ernst von Dohnányi, became one of the internationally most attractive professors of the Hochschule für Musik. A center for Hungarian culture in Berlin, Collegium Hungaricum was founded in Robert Gragger went to teach Hungarian studies at the University of Berlin and became director of the Collegium. He also published the Ungarische Jahrbücher, a quality journal presenting Hungarian scholarship.
Gragger's Collegium attracted particularly young Hungarians at the beginning of their careers. Berlin in the early pre-War era proved to be an irresistible magnet for the new Hungarian intellectual and professional classes.
Many of the young Hungarians who frequented Berlin around the turn of the century were Jewish. The Jewish-Hungarian middle class felt at home in imperial Germany and sent their sons and daughters there to study. After completing their courses in Budapest before World War I, Hungary's up-and-coming mathematicians saw Göttingen and Berlin as the most important places to study.
As a very young 1 frank 1968 suisse anti aging, the celebrated Lipót Fejér spent the academic year in Berlin where he attended the famous seminar of Hermann Amandus Schwarz.
Inhe studied in Göttingen and in subsequent years returned to 1 frank 1968 suisse anti aging universities . A gifted student of Fejér, Gábor Szego also followed his path and went to study in pre-War Berlin, Göttingen and Vienna, and later became professor of mathematics at Stanford .
Gábor Szego Men of letters also followed in numbers. Critic, author, and art-patron Baron Lajos Hatvany studied classics with the prestigious Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff in Berlin--an experience which he came to denounce in his sarcastic Die Wissenschaft des nicht Wissenswerten, first published in Leipzig, Germany .
His second book, Ich und die Bücher, was published simultaneously in both German and Hungarian in . The Amerikanisierung of Berlin While visiting Berlin, the young Henry Adams found very little of interest in and noted that «the German university and German law were failures; German society, in an American sense, did not exist, or if it existed, never showed itself to an American»; and he spoke about the «total failure of German education» .
Until well afterBerlin seemed very little other than a provincial garrison town. Henry Adams described Berlin as a poor, keen-witted, provincial town, simple, dirty, uncivilized, and in most respects disgusting.
Life was primitive beyond what an American boy could have imagined. Overridden by military methods and bureaucratic pettiness, Prussia was only beginning to free her hands from internal bonds. Apart from discipline, activity scarcely existed . Three decades later, another American, E. Ross, saw it very differently: The long lines of brilliant electric light globes, the rows of the brilliant shop windows, the omnibuses, the carriages, the streams of pedestrians — all this made me exult.
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You will be one of similar streams of humanity in the cities of the Great Republic You shall be in the tide. For Ross, Berlin was the big city, a glittering summary of all possibilities that could lie ahead. For German cultural critics such as Julius Langbehn, Paul de Lagarde, and Moeller van den Bruck, Berlin a mere couple of decades later had taken on an American flavor which seemed to be evil itself. It was he who thought that the ancient spirit of the Prussian garrison town was corrupted by the poison of commerce and materialism which he identified with the Amerikanisierung Americanization of Germany.
Langbehn bitterly resented «the crude cult of money which» he insisted, «was also a North American trait, which takes over more and more in today's Berlin; a German and honorable spirit should definitely stand up against it. Coins of 1 frank 1968 suisse anti aging are mostly dirty.
For the Germans of today, they should be the tool and not the purpose» . His tract appeared approximately at the time when Josiah Strong described the American city as one of the great perils of his day .
Eventually, however, Langbehn identified «the crude cult of money» not only with North America but, as he inserted it in subsequent editions of his phenomenally popular book, it was «also a Jewish trait» . Changes quickly occurred when, after the unification of Germany, the nation needed a large national political capital city to govern the new Reich. Petersburg under Peter the Great, the new, cosmopolitan and culturally important Berlin was created largely by political exigencies.
The big newspaper concerns and the many new theaters helped the city become preeminent by invigorating its cultural life and making it, by the beginning of the new century, «an important gathering place for artists who casually defied Imperial and bourgeois cultural standards, and cultivated everything that was artistically modern» .
Though it was not as charming and easy-going as Vienna, it was also less traditional and conceited and welcomed experimental art and artists, science and scientists. The city had the ill-fame of being a crazy place and Berliners made fun of themselves through a little verse in the local dialect: Du bist verrückt, mein Kind, Du mußt nach Berlin, Wo die Verrückten sind, Da jehörst de hin .
The first to use the term in a speech in was Emil Du Bois-Reymond who warned of «Amerikanisierung in terms of the growing overweight of technology» . Du Bois-Reymond made frequent references to the threat of Amerikanisierung for Europe, her intellectual life as well as for her economy.
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James Cardinal Gibbons of Baltimore initiated a movement within 1 frank 1968 suisse anti aging American Catholic Church, trying to adapt it to the complexities of a new industrial society like that of the United States.
The dispute over this modernizing program became such an issue in both Germany and France that in Pope Leo XIII dispatched an encyclical, Testem benevolentiae, to Cardinal Gibbons, condemning Americanism, especially the view that «the Church ought to adapt herself somewhat to our advanced civilization and, relaxing her ancient rigor, show some indulgence to modern popular theories and methods» .
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By the turn of the century the term was so widely used and considered such a pernicious threat in Germany that Paul Dehn spoke of the potential dangers of an «Americanization of the Earth» in a paper published in What is Americanization?
In the economic sense Americanization means the modernization of the methods of industry, commerce, and agriculture as well as in all areas of practical life. In a broader sense, socially and politically considered, Americanization means the [uncontrolled], exclusive, and [inconsiderate] drive for possession, riches and influence For contemporaries with a knowledge of both cultures, it was post-World War I Berlin that had become most thoroughly Americanized. The German accepts an American argument far more readily than that of a European.
The American he at once finds practical and convincing» . Berlin in these ways was not German at all, but an American city planted in Germany and temporarily dominating it.
Berlin became essentially non-German and foreign. Towards the end of his term in Berlin, inthe British diplomat concluded: A parallel is sometimes drawn in this respect between America and Germany.
- Député de la Gironde, 2e circonscription U.
- His father, Miklós Szent-Györgyi, was a landowner, born in MarosvásárhelyTransylvania today Târgu Mureş, Romaniaa Calvinistand could trace his ancestry back to when Sámuel, a Calvinist predicant, was ennobled.
Both appear to me animated with similar ambitions, and to measure success almost exclusively by wealth. The Germans will adapt themselves to American industrial methods much more easily than 1 frank 1968 suisse anti aging English.
In business there is a temperamental affinity between them . The American industrialist Henry Ford was very popular in Germany and his My Life and Work was published almost instantly in a German translation which soldbolondbiztos anti aging bőrrutin. Also, there were American-type high rises, jazz bands, Black American musicians, and the entire American entertainment industry to dazzle the German mind and mold the German way of life according to American patterns.